How to cut costs to thrive, not just to survive

How To Cut Costs To Thrive, Not Just To Survive

Brenda van Camp
Founder & CEO, Upwardley

In times like these, you frequently hear leaders talk about right-sizing their company in response to the economic downturn. Perhaps you have already received an email from the c-suite with the missive that “the company as a whole needs to find 30% in savings across the board to keep costs in line with the projected lower revenues.” But making cuts “across the board” is a dangerous knee-jerk approach. While it may feel more “fair,” that is not the goal. 

The goal is to realign the company’s cost base in a way that better enables it to weather the storm and position itself to rebuild afterward. So, the aim is to be strategic, and in this week’s post, we will discuss a two-part framework to ensure you cut costs in a way that will enable your organization to thrive again in the future – not just survive.

 

Part 1: Re-validate your direction

Following such a significant shift in the overall business environment, each company needs to first conduct a quick strategic review of their business portfolio because the route to future success isn’t necessarily “the same strategy but at 30% less cost.”

After a crisis, the route to future success is most likely not 'the same strategy but at 30% less cost.' Click To Tweet

Hence, one needs to answer the following five questions to identify which aspects of the business portfolio strategy need to be revised in response to the new business environment:

1. What are the resulting shifts in the needs and overall demand for our products & services?

Example: As all live sports around the world are on hiatus until further notice, attention has turned to e-sports. This provides previously unthinkable opportunities to e-sports companies such as Take-Two Interactive Software, the makers of NBA 2K and Electronics Arts, the makers of American football video game Madden NFL 20, and Psyonix’ Rocket League, the car racing game.

2. How does this shift affect how we differentiate ourselves from other players?

Example: Fitness is moving online en masse, rapidly commoditizing the “on-demand” aspect of existing online fitness offerings such as Peloton and Mirror, and requiring them to rethink how to differentiate their value proposition to remain competitive.

3. How does this shift affect our customer segments?

Example: Previously, Zoom focused on providing video conferencing services to business customers. Now, due to personal distancing, it has been adopted by new segments of customers, including personal users and schools. This has resulted in unexpected revenue growth for Zoom, yet it also required the company to make changes to address the differing needs of personal users and schools.

4. How does this shift affect how we produce & deliver our products or services?  

Example: The shelter-in-place order closed down cinemas around the world, throwing a wrench in the wheels for the release of several new movies. While some have decided to wait until the fall, like Universal Pictures with the new James Bond movie, other film studios are rethinking their distribution strategies now and selling their films directly to online streaming services such as AmazonPrime and NetFlix.

 5. How does this shift impact our various sales channels?

Example: Before the current health crisis, 79% of wine was sold through grocery stores and wine shops, 19% was sold through restaurants and bars, and just 2% was sold directly to consumers. However, in light of the new normal, winemakers will have to increase their focus on developing their D2C sales channel to replace the projected sales decline through restaurants and bars.

 

Part 2: Cut with surgical precision, rather than blunt force

Not all costs are created equal. Some expenses are critical to your organization’s ability to differentiate itself. At the same time, other costs are necessary to pay for basic operational activities to operate in your industry and yet other costs are not strategically required but nice to have’s. So, rather than cutting across the board, you need to safeguard the alignment between your expenses and your strategy. I.e., you need to carefully weigh which costs to cut and which to keep based on what you need to do to execute your plan going forward successfully.

So what’s needed?

1. Get specific about which exact capabilities underpin your company’s ability to deliver a differentiated value proposition.

Companies frequently get this part wrong by defining this too broadly. This is not about saying, “Marketing is a core capability.” Instead, this is about getting specific. For example, one of Apple’s distinctive capabilities is its exceptional supply chain management, which is a capability that includes a variety of activities, such as supplier management, warehousing operations, demand management, inventory control, production planning, and sourcing. Note, how we did not say that “operations” is one of Apple’s distinctive capabilities, but that we got specific around which set of activities creates that unique supply chain management capability. When you’re this specific about which activities help deliver a company’s differentiated value add, then you can also, during a cost-cutting exercise, protect the particular expenditure on people, technology, tools, and processes that are required to maintain those capabilities that underpin a company’s competitive edge.

During a cost-cutting exercise, your need to protect the particular expenditure on people, technology, tools, and processes that are required to deliver your company's competitive edge. Click To Tweet

2. Distinctive capabilities don’t tend to fit neatly into budget lines.

Once you have a detailed definition of what your differentiating capabilities are, then you need to unravel your budgets to isolate the activities and resulting costs across functions that support these capabilities. If you don’t do this and just cut your budget by a certain % across the board, you risk cutting the very expenditure that you need to maintain your company’s competitive edge.

3. Rather than taking the traditional approach of asking what to cut, start from a place of what costs to keep.

To do this, you first have to categorize each cost into one of four cost categories, based on the Fit for Growth cost-optimization model developed by Vinay Couto, John Plansky, and Deniz Caglar.

  • Differentiating capabilities: Expenditure for activities to develop and maintain distinctive capabilities
  • Table-stakes:  Costs to enable activities to be a viable player in your industry
  • Lights-on:  Expenses incurred to operate your organization day-to-day, such as legal and facilities costs
  • Not required:  Any expense that’s not needed, including executives frills, nice-to-have employee perks, non-strategic initiatives, and pet projects

Once you have categorized all your costs, the next step is to re-evaluate the optimal level of expenditure for each cost. Given that we want to protect our distinctive capabilities, the aim should be to find opportunities to save in the other three categories. However, when doing so, be aware that our own bias can get in the way of making the tougher calls. 

For example, when considering cutting initiatives that are no longer deemed strategic, leaders often struggle to pull the trigger because of what economists call the sunk cost fallacy. This is our tendency to continue investing in a losing proposition because of what it has already cost thus far. Instead, the only real question should be, “knowing what I know now, would I still make this investment.” The answer is generally no.

When considering cutting initiatives that are no longer deemed strategic, leaders often struggle to pull the trigger because of what economists call the sunk cost fallacy. Click To Tweet

Also, businesses tend to over-invest in table stake activities – those technologies, processes, and tools that are part of the “cost of entry” into an industry. Instead, when reviewing what we spend on those activities, we would do well to remember that they do NOT differentiate us because EVERYONE has to undertake these activities to play in this industry. That’s why it would be much wiser to try and find ways to spend as little as possible on them. 

Lastly, don’t overlook the many crimes that are hidden in your “lights on activities.” Lights-on costs include costs such as utilities, office supplies, and legal fees. The reason why they often are overlooked is that, when allocated by department, they look like small-fry budget lines. However, when aggregated across departments, lights-on costs can be significant and provide fertile ground for cost savings.

 

In Summary

Taking an across the board approach to your cost-cutting may sound fair, but tends to gloss over the need to review whether a company’s long-term strategy is still valid in the new environment. It can also ultimately end up doing more harm than good by cutting in areas that are critical to your company’s ability to regenerate growth. Instead, taking a more strategic approach will help your company not just emerge with savings but also with clarity about your revised strategy and distinctive capabilities to succeed in the new normal. 

Taking an across the board approach to your cost-cutting may sound fair, but can ultimately end up doing more harm than good by cutting in areas that are critical to your company's ability to regenerate growth. Click To Tweet

About Brenda van Camp

Brenda is the Founder and CEO of Upwardley, the new San Francisco based start-up that harnesses the latest people science & technology to re-imagine leadership development for the modern enterprise by making it more affordable, personalized, on-demand and habit-building.

Brenda is also the author of the book “The Leadership Workout”, which provides you with a 31-day framework to purposefully direct and regularly review your leadership through daily reflection and practice, to help you refine and further develop your leadership. One facet at a time, one day at a time. (View Brenda’s LinkedIn profile)

Plan B? Decision making in the fog of crisis

Plan B? Decision-making in the Fog of Crisis

Brenda van Camp
Founder & CEO, Upwardley

“Business-as-usual” went out the door about three weeks ago. Yesterday’s assumptions no longer apply and, we haven’t the foggiest idea how all this will unfold. So how the heck do you make the right decisions when things are so unclear? Well, in this week’s post, we’re providing you with a 6-step roadmap for smart decision-making in uncertain times.

Before we dive in let me give you a quick preview of the six stops on this roadmap:

1. Hold your horses

2. Use history to provide perspective

3. Harness the collective wisdom

4. Find & talk to the “Cassandras”

5. Develop your options

6. Don’t be a wimp! Yet, don’t bet the farm either

 

 1. Hold your horses!

For us to make any smart decisions on how to respond to the impact of COVID-19 we first need to know exactly how this public health crisis is impacting our industry on a macro level and organization on a micro level. We have to resist the urge to focus on the knee-jerk reaction of “doing something right now” and instead, take the time to get a firm grasp on what’s happening, what we know and how this will impact our employees, our customers, our supply chain, our competitors, and even our regulatory environment. To do this, we recommend creating and maintaining a running fact sheet for each of these stakeholder groups. On this fact sheet, answer for each stakeholder group the following questions:

  • How are they affected by the crisis?
  • How does that impact their role in our business?
  • What are the likely consequences of that?
  • Can we quantify, even if just a best-guess estimate, the impact and consequences?

When developing these fact sheets, we have to take great care to discern rumor from fact by verifying our facts through multiple reputable sources. Remember that we never have all the facts immediately and rarely at any one time. We need to be keenly aware of all that we don’t know yet and  keep re-evaluating the facts as the crisis unfolds. Lastly, we need to resist the urge to immediately jump to ideas on how we can remediate some of those effects or consequences. In a crisis, not all impact and consequences are created equal, and we have to prioritize ruthlessly later what to focus on remediating first.

Using such a structured fact-finding approach with your team to create a clear and shared mental map of the new environment will provide a critical foundation for your ability to lead your team expertly through this crisis. It shouldn’t take more than 90 minutes – 2 hours to work through this. Skip it at your peril.

 

2. Use history to provide perspective

While this COVID-19 health crisis is a rare event, it can be very instructive to look back at how previous external shocks impacted your organization and other players in your industry. What lessons can be learned from how your organization and industry were affected and how you or someone you admire responded to it? How did customers respond? How long did it take for things to stabilize? What measures did your organization take in response to the crisis? What measures did competitors take in response to the crisis? What worked? What didn’t work? In hindsight, what could have been done better?

For example, if you are in the airline industry, it might be informative to look at how long it took for people to start travelling again post 9/11. And what did it take for your organization to implement the new security protocols to both prevent future attacks as well as help make people feel safe again?

In these uncertain times it behooves us to heed the words of writer and philosopher George Santayana:

“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”

 

3. Harness the collective wisdom

The fall-out of the current health crisis will impact your industry, organization, and function in many unexpected ways. And not one leader can grasp all the repercussions alone. This is essentially a vantage point issue.

To lead effectively through this uncertainty, you’ll need to talk things through with people who have different perspectives. And we don’t mean just talking to your peers at the same level from across the organization as none of them are on the front lines. To really know what’s happening, talk to people in your industry, organization and functional departments who are in direct contact with customers, vendors, regulators and other key stakeholders . Only then can you learn how these stakeholders are affected by the crisis, how they are reacting to it and how it changes their need for and expectations of your products or services. As Andy Grove put it in his seminal book “Only The Paranoid Survive.”

“The more complex the issues are, the more levels of management should be involved because people from different levels of management bring completely different POVs, and expertise to the table.”

To do this effectively, help everyone shift from discussion to dialogue and debate. This is not about pitting people with different ideas against each other and seeing who wins the discussion as not one person has the “correct answer.” This is about using dialogue to leverage the combined brainpower of all relevant parties in order to compare, contrast, and elicit different viewpoints and arrive at the best possible set of options under the existing circumstances.

Note, however, that engaging people in dialogue is hard, because it requires us to

  • Push away our inherent biases and really work to see things with new eyes
  • Be willing to be influenced by the contrary opinions of others to gain a broader perspective
  • Question our existing assumptions
  • Have the courage to speak our truth irrespective of other influences
  • Replace our underlying desire to win with a desire for continuous learning
What teams need right now is dialogue to leverage everyone's combined brainpower in order to compare, contrast, and elicit different viewpoints and arrive at the best possible set of options under the existing circumstances. Click To Tweet

Even under normal circumstances, maintaining impartiality and objectivity requires emotional maturity and effort. Given the heightened stress levels of today, it will likely prove even more difficult. As a leader, you need to safeguard the conditions for good dialogue. Call people out when they become defensive when someone’s different viewpoint challenges their beliefs, assumptions, or opinions. Make it safe for everyone to honestly share their views without having to fear being disliked, looking stupid, or being seen as a troublemaker. And help your people to stay open to looking at things through many different lenses by stopping them from looking for the “one right viewpoint.”

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4. Find & talk to the “Cassandras”

With business-other-than-usual, leaders need to be willing to think differently. To do so, you first have to accept that the bell cannot be un-rung. Despite all our wishful thinking, things won’t go back to “normal” as if nothing ever happened.

So, the pertinent question now is how things will be different. Will there be more video meetings with customers vs. in-person meetings? Will more of my team be working remotely and how will that impact team cohesion? And how will all the inevitable changes impact the way we deliver our product or service?

We have to accept that the bell cannot be un-rung. Despite all our wishful thinking, things won't go back to “normal” as if nothing ever happened. Click To Tweet

To successfully think differently, identify and engage with what Andy Grove terms “The Cassandras” in your organization, industry, or department. Cassandra was the priestess who predicted the fall of Troy. Similarly, there are people in your organization and industry who have a knack for foretelling what a particular set of changes in your environment might represent. Those are the people you want to listen to right now to challenge your thinking about what these changes might mean for your industry, organization or department.

In addition, also keep an eye out for articles in the press that explore what life after this health crisis may look like. Our favorite so far is this article by Politico Magazine which surveyed more than 30 smart, macro thinkers to explore how the current health crisis might reshape society in lasting ways

 

5. Develop a plan and back-up plans

As things are in flux and the consequences uncertain, it is critical to recognize that there is no such thing as “the right strategy.” Instead, prepare for what the response should be under different scenarios.

To build good scenarios, first consider what the key factors are that could affect the future outcomes for your particular business, industry or department.

For example, one set of scenarios might look at how the demand for your product or service will respond during and after the crisis. And , what if the crisis lasts another 6 months or a year? Another set of scenarios might explore how customer needs for and expectations of your products or services might change in response to the crisis. And lastly, you may want to build a set of scenarios that explore what you would do if some key components of your supply chain were affected during and after the crisis.

Once you have determined the key factors, it is useful to limit yourself to 3 scenarios for each set: a most likely, less likely, and least likely scenario. Avoid the temptation and folly of thinking every possible scenario can be covered. It will lead to too many scenarios, unnecessary confusion and worst of all, decision paralysis.

Once the scenarios are developed, determine what might be the best response to each of them, and decide what leading indicator(s) would signal to you and your team that you need to deploy each particular strategy- i.e., establish and agree on action triggers.

 

6. Don’t be a wimp! Yet, also don’t bet the farm either

In a crisis most options are unpleasant. As a result, one frequently made mistake in times of crisis is that leaders shy away from making the necessary hard choices because they just don’t have the stomach for it. They forget that no choice is a choice and hardly ever a good one.

Often, they opt for the easier and less unpopular decision with suboptimal outcomes. In the long-run, these suboptimal decisions will come home to roost, as the business won’t recover as well as it should, requiring repeated subsequent corrective actions.

To avoid this pitfall head-on, accept that there are no easy ways out of this crisis and that being a good leader means doing what is best for the greater good, even if that makes you personally unpopular at the time. (The timely example of Navy Captain Crozier comes to mind. He dared to speak up in order to save his crew at the expense of risking his stellar career)

So don’t be a wimp. Yet, at the same time, know that this is also not the time to make significant strategic commitments one way or another. Instead, you want to place small sequential bets that minimize your potential downside and maximize your potential upside. This approach allows you to learn what works and what doesn’t during this untested time. Eventually, with the cumulative benefit of more information as our new normal slowly unfolds, you’ll be better able to determine your next set of bigger decisions.

Accept that there are no easy ways out of this crisis and that being a good leader means doing what is best for the greater good, even if that makes you personally unpopular at the time. Click To Tweet
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Leading in Uncertain Times

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Decision Making

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About the Author

Brenda is the Founder and CEO of Upwardley, the new San Francisco based start-up that harnesses the latest people science & technology to re-imagine leadership development for the modern enterprise by making it more affordable, personalized, on-demand and habit-building.

Brenda is also the author of the book “The Leadership Workout”, which provides you with a 31-day framework to purposefully direct and regularly review your leadership through daily reflection and practice, to help you refine and further develop your leadership. One facet at a time, one day at a time. (View Brenda’s LinkedIn profile)

How To Not Let Anxiety Derail You & Your Team

How To Not Let Anxiety Derail You & Your Team

Brenda van Camp
Founder & CEO, Upwardley

These are unprecedented times in which we’re collectively feeling a sense of dread and apprehension about what might happen to us in the near future. We worry about whether we or our loved ones might get the virus, whether we’ll survive it, or whether we’ll have jobs and health insurance in the foreseeable future. We’re all experiencing a genuine threat to our life and livelihood. However, even as we shelter in place, work has not been suspended. But how do you and your team stay focused and get work done amidst this crisis? In this post, we’ll discuss what anxiety does to the brain and what you and other leaders can do to help yourself and your employees best deal with it.

What anxiety does to our brain

One of the major tasks of our brain is to work as a prediction engine. Based on the data we obtain through our senses, it predicts what will happen next. It helps us interpret what is happening in the world around us and in doing so, provides us with a sense of certainty about our situation. However, when our brain cannot predict what is happening next, like what most of us are experiencing right now, it triggers what neuroscientists call an “away response.” This means the brain is preparing our body to minimize danger – to run away from the threat and retreat to safety. While we may experience this mainly as an emotional experience, it’s important to realize that this is driven by a series of changes at the physiological and neurological level.

First, our brain sends more blood to our muscles to boost our motor functions (so we can run away), which is why nervous people often start to pace up and down or start tapping their fingers. However, this diversion of blood to the muscles comes at the expense of blood to the brain. This means the brain now has less oxygen and glucose, the essential fuels that it needs to operate. This is one of the reasons why when we’re anxious, it becomes hard to think logically or to be creative. Our prefrontal cortex, which we rely on for such higher-level cognitive processes as planning, decision-making, problem-solving, and self-control, is not getting the needed fuel to operate optimally. Moreover, our brain now experiences a strong over-riding urge to continuously scan the environment for danger, which explains why it’s so difficult to focus on anything else when we’re anxious.

So, given that we are all currently living in a state of uncertainty about our very survival, it’s important to acknowledge that our brains, irrespective of how clever we are, are suffering from the harmful effects of this collective anxiety … i.e. most of us are not able to think as clearly, deeply or creatively as usual and are probably having a much harder time staying focused.

We are all currently experiencing some level of anxiety, so it’s important to acknowledge that, irrespective of how clever we are, most of us aren't able to think as clearly, deeply or creatively as usual and also find it harder to focus Click To Tweet

The good news is that there are things we can do to mitigate these effects, however, before we discuss those methods, lets first talk about what NOT to do.

What doesn’t work

In a crisis (because that is what this is), all eyes are on the leader. Our team members look to us for guidance on how to respond, how to think about things, how to be, how to act. And while that does mean that we need to convey our ability to meet the moment, it does not mean that we should ignore or minimize the anxiety that we all feel. Why not? Because ignoring or minimizing feelings of anxiety actually exacerbates it. Why? Because when a leader fails to validate her people’s feelings of anxiety, it’s perceived as a lack of understanding or caring for their well-being. As a result, they will feel disengaged and disconnected from the leader and be less willing to follow direction.

Being a leader does not mean we should be impervious to feelings of fear. Quite the contrary. It just means that we can’t let the fear paralyze us. So we shouldn’t tell our people it’s “business as usual.” It’s not! Instead, we should take a leaf out of Governor Cuomo’s book and show them that we’re human too, but that we won’t let it paralyze us and that we know what to do next. (Watch this short video in which Governor Cuomo validates all our feelings but also shows us how not to let them paralyze us)

Being a leader does not mean we should be impervious to feelings of fear. Quite the contrary. It just means that we can’t let the fear paralyze us. Click To Tweet

On a cautionary note, we also shouldn’t let our people wallow in their fears either. While anxiety can cause people to feel the need to talk at length about their worries, as their leader we will need to walk a fine line between acknowledging those concerns and not letting the conversation drown in the worry pool. Why not? Because when we discuss our negative feelings at length, they tend to beget more negative emotions and cause us to spiral further downwards. Negative feelings are highly contagious, so if we let everyone talk about their fears all day long, anxiety will soon be the dominant mood.

So how do we walk this fine line? One way to achieve this is to put some structure around when and how people share their feelings. For example, as a team, we can agree to have a daily team check-in where each person is asked how they’re doing and can voice the concerns or questions that they have. Be sure though to time-box the meeting, limit people’s speaking time and try and be compassionate yet also provide clarity and direction.

What you can do to help your people handle anxiety

To help people mitigate their anxiety, we turned to the work of James J. Gross, Professor of Psychology at Stanford and Director of the Stanford Psychophysiology Laboratory, who has done extensive research into how people effectively regulate their emotions. Dr. Gross’ research lists multiple ways; however, amongst them, he identified “re-appraisal” as one of the most effective ways to regain control of our emotions.

Gross defines re-appraisal as the act of re-evaluating your negative feelings to regain a sense of control. Below we’ll explore three methods of re-appraisal and how we can use them to help us alleviate our own and our people’s anxiety amidst the current crisis.

1. Repositioning

The first way to re-appraise our fears, is to “reposition” ourselves by looking at our situation from a different perspective. We can look at it from the perspective of another person, another time, another country, another culture, etc. This approach is frequently used in leadership coaching as well. For example, when we look at our current crisis from the perspective of a hundred years ago, we see that given all the advancements in modern medicine and technology, we’re in a much better place today to respond to this pandemic. It doesn’t make it better, but it helps regain a slight sense of control.

Another form of “repositioning” is humor. For example, I used to work with a leader, who whenever things got tense in a meeting, would say, “Did I tell you what a great deal I got on my new lawn mower?” His out-of-left-field comments never failed to draw laughter and ease the tensions, shifting the mood from serious to funny and enabling everyone to reset for a better flow of discussion. So don’t be afraid to add a little humor to your Zoom meetings. It relieves anxiety and will result in better thinking afterward!

2. Normalizing

In this second approach to re-appraising our feelings, we seek to understand why we feel a certain way, allowing us to regain a sense of control. Our first section about how anxiety affects our brain was an example of this approach. When we understand that neurological and physiological processes drive anxiety, we can begin to normalize the fact that many of us currently can’t think as clearly, or be as focused, as we usually are. You could do the same for your team by sharing that explanation with them. In addition, the video of Governor Cuomo that we share in the second section above, is also a great example of how to use “normalizing.”

3. Re-ordering

This refers to the final approach, in which we seek to reduce our anxiety by re-evaluating and re-aligning what matters most to us in light of the new threat. Many of us are currently experiencing high levels of stress because we’re still trying to live up to values and expectations that might be less important to us in the light of current events. We’re still committed to our careers of course, but right now, the well-being of our loved ones is front and center. We still want to ensure our kids do off-screen activities, but right now, with them being at home every hour of every day, maybe it’s OK to loosen the rules a little for the sake of everyone’s happiness and sanity. We highly recommend that you discuss with your team this tension between “what was expected” under normal circumstances versus what is OK now. Addressing this will likely provide a huge sense of relief for many of your people. For example, you might usually expect people to start work and be available for meetings from 9 a.m. onward. However, under the current circumstances you might discuss and agree that meetings will not be planned before 11 a.m. so people have time to take care of newly added familial tasks like geting their children set up for online classes.

Many of us are very stressed because we’re holding on to values and expectations that might be less important to us in the light of current events. To reduce our anxiety we need to re-evaluate & re-align what matters most to us now. Click To Tweet

We hope some or all of this is helpful to you and your team in the weeks to come. Feel free to contact us with any questions – brenda@upwardley.com and gina@upwardley.com We’re in this together.

This was the first post in our 3-part series on how to lead through a crisis. Keep an eye out for our next post on how to make smart decisions during uncertain times.

About Brenda van Camp

Brenda is the Founder and CEO of Upwardley, the new San Francisco based start-up that harnesses the latest people science & technology to re-imagine leadership development for the modern enterprise by making it more affordable, personalized, on-demand and habit-building.

Brenda is also the author of the book “The Leadership Workout”, which provides you with a 31-day framework to purposefully direct and regularly review your leadership through daily reflection and practice, to help you refine and further develop your leadership. One facet at a time, one day at a time. (View Brenda’s LinkedIn profile)

About Gina Larkin

As our COO, Gina ensures that Upwardley runs as smooth and fast as it can. She oversees Business Development, Partnerships, Marketing and Recruiting. Given that Gina is also a renowned executive coach to c-suite clients from companies such as Amazon, Diageo, Lob, PayPal, Red Bull, Ogilvy, Samsung, Social Financial, and Twitter, she also leads our coaching services. (View Gina’s LinkedIn profile)